Verlustbringer unter Kunden früh erkennen

12
Jun

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Mit manchen Kunden verdienen Unternehmen kein Geld – oder zahlen am Ende sogar drauf. Wie Sie anhand typischer Verhaltensweisen und einer Kundenwertanalyse Verlustbringer unter Ihren Kunden ausfindig machen.

Verlustbringer unter potenziellen Neukunden können Unternehmen teuer zu stehen kommen. Anhand von bestimmten Verhaltensweisen können sie in einigen Fällen aber schon während des Verkaufsgesprächs entlarvt werden. Bei Bestandskunden kann eine Kundenwertanalyse helfen.

Woran erkenne ich Verlustbringer? – Typische Verhaltensweisen

Um zu erkennen, wer sich als Interessent oder späterer Bestandskunde womöglich als Verlustbringer erweist, sollten Sie auf folgende typische Anzeichen achten:

Einen hohen Aufwand für das Unternehmen stellen vor allem Privatpersonen und Unternehmen dar, die lediglich Preise vergleichen wollen. Sie stellen im Vorfeld überdurchschnittlich viele Anfragen, ohne wirklich eine konkrete Kaufabsicht zu haben.Tendenziell verlustbringende Kunden sind hauptsächlich an einem niedrigen Preis interessiert und versuchen oftmals schon im Verkaufsgespräch, sprichwörtlich Äpfel mit Birnen zu vergleichen, um den Preis nach unten zu treiben. Außerdem wollen sie meist durch einen angedrohten Anbieterwechsel erreichen, ein günstigeres Angebot zu bekommen. Auch im späteren Verlauf erweisen sie sich häufig als investitionsscheu und damit eher verlustbringend für das Unternehmen.Potenzielle Verlustbringer haben häufig überdurchschnittlich hohe Ansprüche, stellen viele Rückfragen, haben einen großen Beratungsbedarf und fordern regelmäßig noch mehr Leistungen zum gleichen Preis an.Schon bei kleinen Abweichungen des vereinbarten Prozesses – zum Beispiel unverschuldeten Verzögerungen der Lieferung – reagieren sie häufig preisempfindlich und fordern hohe Sonderrabatte ein. Um möglichst früh zu erkennen, ob sich ein Interessent später womöglich als Verlustbringer erweist, sollten Angebote gut vorbereitet sowie vor- und nachtelefoniert werden. Vertriebsmitarbeiter lernen ihr Gegenüber dadurch außerdem etwas besser kennen und merken schnell, wie viel Zeit und Geld sie später ungefähr investieren müssen.

Wenn potenzielle Neukunden Angebote mehrfach ohne Begründung und ohne sichtliches Interesse an Produkt oder Leistung ablehnen, will er in den meisten Fällen nur Preise vergleichen. In ihn sollten keine weiteren Mühen investiert werden. Außerdem helfen schon eine nach außen hin eindeutige Positionierung sowie klare Vorgaben und Verbindlichkeiten, um die passende Zielgruppe anzusprechen und übermäßige Verhandlungsversuche im Laufe der weiteren Kundenbeziehung einzudämmen.

So funktioniert die Kundenwertanalyse

Um herauszufinden, wer von seinen Bestandskunden eher zu den Verlustbringern zählt, sollten Sie ein geeignetes Analysemodell nutzen. Bei der Kundendeckungsbeitragsrechnung etwa erfolgt eine Gegenüberstellung von Umsatzerlösen und Kosten, die dem jeweiligen Kunden zugerechnet werden können. Die Differenz der beiden Größen zeigt an, welchen Erfolg das Unternehmen durch den Abnehmer verzeichnen konnte.

Im Anschluss lassen sich die Kunden in nach Wichtigkeit geordnete Kategorien einteilen. Außerdem stehen sogenannte Punktbewertungsmodelle wie die RFMR-Methode zur Verfügung, bei der die Kriterien letztes Kaufdatum, Kaufhäufigkeit und Umsatzhöhe des Kunden mit verschieden hohen Punkten bewertet werden und das Gesamtergebnis aller Kunden schließlich über ihre Rangordnung entscheidet.

Alternativ lässt sich der ungefähre Kundenwert mittels der sogenannten BCG-Portfoliomatrix bestimmen, bei der zum Beispiel die strategischen Erfolgsfaktoren Kundenattraktivität und Wettbewerbsposition in einer 4-Felder-Matrix gegenübergestellt werden können. Zur Kundenattraktivität zählen dabei nicht nur die Ist-Werte, sondern auch das in dem Kunden gesehene Zukunftspotenzial. Die Wettbewerbsposition stellt den Grad der Kundenbindung an das eigene Unternehmen dar, dementsprechend die eigene Firmen-Position gegenüber dem Wettbewerb aus Kundensicht. Die Werte der Achsen steigen vom Ursprung her. Demnach befinden sich die weniger wertvollen Kunden nach der Analyse in dem am Ursprung liegenden Quadranten.

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